Life Cycle Modelling with Decentralized Partial Models
Integrated Resource Efficiency Analysis for Reducing Climate Impacts in the Chemical Industry
01.04.2012 - 30.09.2015
Federal Ministry for Education and Research
The integrated analysis and optimization of complex production systems – including material and energy use, resulting costs as well as environmental and climate impacts – is necessary to effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the chemicals sector. When production systems are considered in such an integrated way eco-balancing, process engineering and optimization aspects refer to each other. In practice, their systematic consideration is non-trivial as appropriate instruments and holistic approaches are missing. Such instruments and approaches are expected to increase the degree of acceptance and diffusion regarding measures that aim at climate protection and resource efficiency and, in consequence, contribute to sustainable development. The InReff project does not seek innovative but singular technical solutions, but enables companies to systematically identify efficiency potentials instead. This then helps companies to derive and assess various (technical) measures and solutions. In the joint project three business and two academic partners collaborate to elaborate a platform that integrates different methods of modeling and assessment. The partners will furthermore develop a prototype and test it in practice. The desired holistic approach of this project is rather challenging and requires methodological and technological innovation. In addition, the project results will be incorporated in concrete measures of the involved business partners that are likely to foster technological innovations for existing production processes. Apart from the project partners, Worleée Chemie from Lauenburg was was involved in this R&D project as a SME partner.
Denz, Nicolas; Ausberg, Laura; Bruns, Michael; Viere, Tobias: Supporting resource efficiency in chemical industries - IT-based integration of flow sheet simulation and material flow analysis. Procedia CIRP 15 (2014), 537–542,doi:10.1016/j.procir.2014.06.060
Zschieschang, Eva; Denz, Nicolas; Lambrecht, Hendrik; Viere, Tobias: Resource efficiency-oriented optimization of material flow networks in chemical process engineering. Procedia CIRP 15 (2014), 373–378, doi:10.1016/j.procir.2014.06.066
Tobias Viere, Laura Ausberg, Michael Bruns, Jan Eschke, Jan Hedemann, Katharina Jasch, Hendrik Lambrecht, Mario Schmidt, Stephan Scholl, Tobias Schröer, Frank Schulenburg, Britta Schwartze, Markus Stockmann, Mandy Wesche, Klaus Witt, Eva Zschieschang: Integrated Resource Efficiency Analysis for Reducing Climate Impacts in the Chemical Industry. Journal of Business Chemistry, 2014, 11(2), S. 33-42 pdf-Download
Lambrecht, Hendrik u. Thißen, Nikolaus: Enhancing sustainable production by the combined use of material flow analysis and mathematical programming. Journal of Cleaner Production. In Druck. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.07.053
Viere, T.; Hottenroth, H.; Lambrecht, H.; Rötzer, N.; Paschetag, A.; Scholl, S. u. Wesche, M. (2016): Operationalisierung von Nachhaltigkeit im Produktionskontext: Integrierte Ressourceneffizienzanalyse zur Senkung der Klimabelastung von Produktionsstandorten der chemischen Industrie. In: Leal Filho, W. (Hrsg.): Forschung für Nachhaltigkeit an deutschen Hochschulen. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: 349-363. doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-10546-4_20
WaPrUmKo - Basket-based price and environmental impact comparison oforganic and conventional consumption
01.07.2012 - 31.08.2015
Federal Ministry for Education and Research - Programme FHprofUnt
Within the research project WaPrUmKo prices and environmental impacts of conventional andorganic products are compared. Thereby, the statistical basket of the consumer price indexforms the basis. In comparing the price and environmental impact the relative difference between conventional and organic basket shall be determined and converted into an eco-economic analysis. For the first time empirical ecological variations in consumption patterns for statistical market basket analysis would be available, which could serve the markettransparency for consumers. Essential part of the project are empirical price surveys. Therefore, criteria for the evaluation of environmental product and service alternatives are determined,according to which the organic products are to be selected for the basket. Selection- and weighting criteria are developed for mapping a possible real market situation. Price-statistical methods, with involvement of the Federal Statistical Office, are further developed. The currentstate of the environmental assessment for product groups of the commodity basket is assorted. A particular challenge is to determine the environmental impacts of considered product quality. The environmental impact of consumption is assessed and the cost effects of a greenerconsumption are examined. To map not only the relative price and environmental impact of average consumers, the absolute differences at different levels of consumption and production patterns shall be determined examplarily.
Held, B. und Haubach, C. (2017): "The Additional Costs of Organic Food Products – A Basket of Goods-based Analysis Differentiated by Income". In: management revue, 28(1): 6-61. doi.org/10.5771/0935-9915-2017-1-6.
Haubach, C. und Held, B. (2016): "Der ökologische Verbraucherpreisindex – Kosten- und Umweltwirkungsvergleich von nachhaltigem und konventionellem Konsum". In: Leal Filho, W. [Hrsg.]: Forschung für Nachhaltigkeit an deutschen Hochschulen: Theorie und Praxis der Nachhaltigkeit. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 313-329. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-10546-4_18.
Held, B. und Haubach, C. (2015): "Lohnen sich umweltfreundlichere Personenkraftwagen? Eine Analyse der Kosten und Umweltwirkungen". In: Wirtschaft und Statistik, 65(3): 41-52. https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/WirtschaftStatistik/2015/03/UmweltfreundlicherePersonenkraftwagen_032015.pdf;jsessionid=2F599160D3086DB3C34593DBBE6949AC.InternetLive1?__blob=publicationFile.
Haubach, C. und Held, B. (2015): "Ist ökologischer Konsum teurer? Ein warenkorbbasierter Vergleich". In: Wirtschaft und Statistik, 65(1): 41-55. https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/WirtschaftStatistik/2015/01/OekologischerKonsum_012015.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
Held, B. (2014): "Sind ärmere Haushalte stärker von Inflation betroffen? Eine äquivalenzeinkommensspezifische Analyse". In: Wirtschaft und Statistik 2014(11): 680-691.
Consumers between subjective and objective evaluation of the climate impact of consumer products and risk-adversative consumer behavior
September 2011 - September 2014
Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Programme FHprofUnt
In this research, consumer behavior is examined in the context of climate change. With respect to the climate impact of consumption, gaps between the perception of risk, the risk assessment and the consumption shall be identified and approaches shall be developed to fill those gaps.
These gaps often lead to miscalculations in everyday consumption and climate-damaging behaviors, such as within the scope of detergents or in the evaluation of food. As a result, deficiencies in the company's customer communications shall be identified, the necessary interaction of the actors in the chain from producer to consumer shall be shown and approaches for the effective integration of the existing settings in consumer decision-making processes shall be developed for the implementation of effective climate protection measures. In addition, the development of approaches for communication strategies to influence appropriate motives, attitudes and habits of consumers are planned in order to close identified action gaps.
For this purpose, in empirical analyzes selected fast moving consumer goods are examined and evaluated with respect to their climate impact. This ecologically-factual evaluation of consumer goods shall be opposed to the consumer ‘s subjective evaluation. The exploration of the subjective consumer evaluation will be conducted in cooperation with GfK and our own empirical work with a focus on the identification of pro-environmental attitudes and values of risk assessment of climate change.
Eberhart, A. K., Naderer, G. (2017): Quantitative and qualitative insights into consumers’ sustainable purchasing behaviour; A segmentation approach based on motives and heuristic cues. Journal of Marketing Management 60: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2017.1371204.
Moser, A. K. (2017): The role of consumers in transformations towards sustainable consumption - qualitative and quantitative insights into consumers´ purchasing decisions regarding fast moving consumer goods. Leuphana Universität Lüneburg. Dissertation. http://opus.uni-lueneburg.de/opus/volltexte/2017/14452/pdf/Dissertation_Belegexemplar_elektronische_Version.pdf.
Moser, A. K., Naderer, G., Haubach, C. (2017): Mit qualitativen „insights“ aus der Nische zum Mainstream; Nachhaltiger Konsum von Körperpflegeprodukten. In: Leal Filho, W. (Hrsg): Innovation in der Nachhaltigkeitsforschung: Ein Beitrag zur Umsetzung der UNO Nachhaltigkeitsziele. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, S 23–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-54359-7_2.
Moser, A. K. (2016): "Buying organic – decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany". In: Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552-561. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-04-2016-1790.
Moser, A. K. (2016): "Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers". In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31: 389-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.05.006.
Haubach, C., Moser, A. K. (2016): Nachhaltiger Konsum – Der Unterschied zwischen subjektiv und objektiv umweltfreundlichem Kaufverhalten, In: Walter Leal Filho (Hg.): Theorie und Praxis der Nachhaltigkeit. Forschung für Nachhaltigkeit an deutschen Hochschulen, S. 297-311, Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-10546-4_17
Moser, A. K. (2015): Thinking Green, Buying Green? Drivers of Pro-Environmental Purchasing Behavior, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 32(3), 167-175. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-10-2014-1179.
Moser, A. K. (2015): The Attitude-Behavior Hypothesis And Green Purchasing Behavior: Empirical Evidence From German Milk Consumers, AMA Winter Educators' Conference Proceedings, Vol. 26, S. C27-C28.
Haubach, C., Moser, A. K., Schmidt, M., Wehner, C. (2013): Die Lücke schließen – Konsumenten zwischen ökologischer Einstellung und nicht-ökologischem Verhalten, Wirtschaftspsychologie, ISSN 1615-7729, 15 (2/3), 43-57. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259800821_Die_Lucke_schliessen_-_Konsumenten_zwischen_okologischer_Einstellung_und_nicht-okologischem_Verhalten.
Material and energy flow based cost and climate analysis
01.11.2012 - 30.04.2014
Federal state of Baden Wuerttemberg
The focus of this project was the material flow cost analysis (MFCA) and in particular the ISO 14051, which has been created as a special evaluation of material and energy flows and their monetary value. But the project lacked a methodological integration into a comprehensive approach for the modeling of the material and energy flows related to a production system which is able to connect various extensions, e.g. in the direction of an inter-company analysis of the supply chain, or economic and ecological assessments. In particular, such a methodological embedding was required to develop IT policies and IT products, which are practicable and have the necessary flexibility for the operational use. In this context, extensive consultation with colleagues from Japan, as in the meeting Ecobalance 2012 in Yokohama, has taken place.
PCF-KMU - Product Carbon Footprint for SME
01.08.2010 - 31.10.2013
Federal Ministry for Education and Research
For businesses, it is becoming increasingly important in the international competitionto position themselves on issues of environmental and climate protection. This serves the company's image and by the identification of savings potential competitive advantage can be achieved. An increasingly popular measure of the ecological evaluation of products and services is the "Product Carbon Footprint" (PCF). This "CO2footprint" shows how much greenhouse gases in the life cycle of a particular productare emitted.
The overall objective of the project is to make the method of the PCF applicable for medium-sized manufacturing industry and for medium commercial enterprises.Therefore, the currently available methods have to be developed and adapted andpractical experience in the implementation has to be gained. From the information obtained, instructions are formulated to help that in the SME environment such complex instruments can be used with reasonable effort. It is tested under whichconditions the collection of the CO2 footprint can be an appropriate method to help, in particular small and medium enterprises, to mitigate climate change andsimultaneously obtain advantages in production and sales.
Any necessary adjustments to the institutional (legal and economic) framework conditions are worked out with the aim to make concrete proposals in this regard.
Hochschule Darmstadt; Fachhochschule Bingen
- Hottenroth, H.; Joa, B.; Schmidt, M. (2013): Carbon Footprints für Produkte - Handbuch für die betriebliche Praxis kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen [pdf-Download]
- Cichorowski, G.; Joa, B.; Hottenroth, H.; Schmidt, M.: Scenario analysis of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Darjeeling tea. Int J Life Cycle Assess. DOI: 10.1007/s11367-014-0840-0
WaSChBerR - Water Use in the Supply Chain and Considering Regional Risks
2009 - 2012
Federal Ministry for Education and Research, Programme FHprofUnt
The aim of this project is to develop an indicator system in order to cumulate regionalized water intensities of actors along global supply chains. Thereby not only the water use but also the water scarcities at the different places of water abstraction are taken into account by using established water stress indices for spatial weighting of water use. The latter is important for assessing water-related business risks and impacts of water use which depend mainly on local water availability.
The indicator system follows a different approach than other water footprint methodologies. For calculating the cumulative water intensity, the water use of the company is set in proportion to the company’s turnover. Hence, the monetary value of the goods produced is used as a reference value and not the weight of products. This approach has the advantage that not only the water performance of the same enterprise could be tracked over time, but also comparisons between different companies would be facilitated. Further advantage is achieved by establishing a recursive system in which each supplier passes on his specific data just to the next actor in the chain. In order to calculate its regionalized cumulative water intensity (RCWI), a company must merely know its own water use, the prices and volumes of its purchased precursors, the RCWI of its direct suppliers and the water stress level of its production site. The timeintensive analysis of water use and water impacts throughout the whole supply chain is not longer necessary, as the indirect water footprints are passed on from each supplier to the customer – in the form of the RCWI.
Leuphana Universität Lüneburg
Systain Consulting GmbH Hamburg
M+W Germany GmbH
- Joa, B., Hottenroth, H., Jungmichel, N., Schmidt, M. (2014): Introduction of a feasible performance indicator for corporate water accounting - A case study on the Cotton Textile Chain. Journal of Cleaner Production. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.075
- Joa, B., Hottenroth, H. (2012): Regionalized Cumulative Water Intensity – A Practical Approach to Corporate Water Accounting. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on EcoBalance - Challenges and Solutions for Sustainable Society, 20 - 23th Nov. 2012, Yokohama, Japan
CliCCC - Climate & Carbon Calculator for Companies
01.06.2009 - 31.12.2011
"KMU-innovative: Resource- and energy-efficiency", BMBF - Federal Ministry of Education and Research
A methodically and technically innovative "calculator" will be designed to determine the greenhouse gas emissions and climate performance of individual companies, which is specifically geared to the needs of SMEs. The calculator uses the Internet as an ITplatform and will be operated on the websites of associations, chambers of commerceand other multipliers under license. It is modular and scalable, thereby allowingindividual design to meet the needs of other user groups. The calculator shall enablefast but reliable emission estimates of high scientific quality at the company level. In addition, the direct and indirect emissions of precursors and services ("ecological backpacks") are included. This is done based on generic data from the environmental economics and national accounts. By suitable methods for easy data entry and theformation of indicators with an online-based benchmarking, the benefits of the calcutator are optimized especially for SMEs. The innovative service concept of the calculator can be marketed not only nationally but also internationally. The business model comprises mainly sales of licenses to operators of Internet portals and advertising revenue. The separation of target customers (operators of Internet portals) and target users (enterprises particularly SMEs) gives you free use of the calculator to the end user.Thus, the barriers of use can be drastically reduced.
Raqué, C. (2012): Treibhausgasemissionen, Einkaufsdaten und Preiskonzepte. Horizonte, Ausgabe 39, S. 42-44. (pdf-download)
Raqué, C. (2011): Aufwandsreduzierte Schätzung von Lieferkettenemissionen. Horizonte, Ausgabe 38, S. 53-56. (pdf-download)
Raqué, C. (2011): Input-Output-Analysen zur Schätzung von Lieferkettenemissionen. In: Konturen 2011. Hochschule Pforzheim. S. 94-97. (pdf-download)
CCaRMa - Corporate Carbon Risk Management
01.02.2009 - 31.01.2011
"Innovative Projekte", Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg
In the project “Corporate Carbon Risk Management” risks for companies which arise from impacts of climate change are evaluated. Aim is the development of a risk management of direct and indirect risks from climate impacts on companies. This enables companies to realize, assess and safeguard against these risks. Through a modular composition all risk factors are incorporated to the risk management of climate impacts. One focal point lies on the supply chain risks and interdependencies between impacts of climate change and resource prices. Based on the approach of cumulative emission intensities developed by Pforzheim University and different finance instruments the risks of loss for companies are calculated. Companies are supported by such a so long not existing management of climate risks in decision making concerning supplier selection, investment decision and site selection which minimizes the risk of negative impacts through climate change. On the one side “Corporate Carbon Risk Management” can be incorporated as a part of the whole risk management in existing analyzing instruments. On the other side the module “Carbon Supply Chain Risk” can be also used alone for analyzing the supply chain. Therefore this instrument supports German companies in their strategic alignment against the challenges of climate change. Thus the instrument of “Corporate Carbon Risk Management” safeguards the sustainability of companies.
DyLiC - Dynamic Life Cycle Assessment
1.10.2008 - 31.12.2011
17 24X 08
The methods of analysis for technical systems and the provision of information must always be related to the decision and planning situations in the relevant social systems (business, politics, etc.). Against the background of extensive practical experience, the current pool of methods of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was X-rayed to make a connection between the methods of choice and the decision-making support in politics and business practice. The methodological basis of the LCA, especially the quantitative-mathematical structure, was mirrored against the experiences and pool of methods of other disciplines, especially business science. There were pointed methodological developments by those LCAs can support concrete decision-making situations in business and politics much better. The allocation has been presented against the background of utility maximization, at which it was shown that the non-arbitrariness is not due to the choice of allocation rule but to the choice of the utility function. It was shown that with a flexible modeling of the product system one can map different options of action in a decision-making situation in a life cycle inventory analysis. The results have been considered by the industry partners to develop new software for life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting.
- Schmidt, M. (2009): Principle of causality or market price principle – what really leads us fur-ther in allocating the greenhouse gas emissions? In: VHB/TU Dresden (Hrsg.): Klimawandel - eine Herausforderung für die BWL. Dresdner Beiträge zur Betriebswirtschaftslehre Nr. 150-09. ISSN 0945-4810. 14 Seiten.
- Schmidt, M. (2009): Die Allokation in der Ökobilanzierung vor dem Hintergrund der Nutzen-maximierung. In: Feifel, S., Walk, S., Wursthorn, S., Schebeck, L. (Hrsg.): Ökobilanzierung 2009: Ansätze und Weiterentwicklungen zur Operationalisierung von Nachhaltigkeit. Univer-sitätsverlag Karlsruhe. S. 21-38
- Schmidt, M. (2010): Carbon Accounting zwischen Modeerscheinung und ökologischem Ver-besserungsprozess. Zeitschrift für Controlling und Management, 54. Jg. 2010, H.1, S. 32-37
- Schmidt, M. (2011): Von der Material- und Energieflussanalyse zum Carbon Footprint - An-leihen aus der Kostenrechnung. Chemie Ingenieur Technik Vol. 83, Nr. 10, S. 1541 ff.
- Schmidt, M., Lambrecht, H., Hottenroth, H. (2009): Can LCA learn from cost accounting and production theory? SAM3: 3rd International Seminary on Society and Materials. 29.-30.4.2009, Freiberg
- Lambrecht, H. (2010): Flexible Modellierung des Produktsystems bei der Sachbilanzierung. Ökobilanz-Werkstatt, 29.09. - 01.10.2010, Darmstadt
- Schmidt, M. (2011): MFCA and Supply Chain. International Symposium Environmental Ac-counting and LCA in Asia for Greening the Supply Chain. 3.12.2011, Kobe, Japan
Material efficiency and resource conservation - An analysis of material flows, sectors, categories of need, and the development of strategies and instruments
until december 2010
Federal Environment Ministry (BMU), Federal Environment Agency (UBA)
The project MaRess is subdivided into 13 special work packages. The Institute of Applied Research at Pforzheim University will contribute to work package 4 (“Innovative resource policy approaches at the microscopic level: instruments and approaches close to companies”). The main emphasis of this work package is put on the analysis and development of policy recommendations concerning instruments and methods close to companies which are suitable for setting appropriate incentives not only within companies but also along the supply chain in order to realise resource-efficient behaviour. Regarded instruments include improved distribution of output for companies and company networks, diffusion in the area of cross-sectional technology (e.g. membrane technology), market launch programmes for resource-saving lead products/key services/leading technologies, information campaigns and export promotion programmes.
Work Packages 3 (“Innovative resource policy approaches to design framework conditions“), 4 and 12 (“Consumer-oriented approaches”) seek to integrate findings from their respective areas of activity in an overarching policy mix. Their research agendas are therefore coordinated in a careful and targeted manner. The results, including impact appraisals, will be shared with a view to identifying interactions or links. As a synthesis a policy mix will be developed which integrates the various fields of activity as far as possible.
Within work package 4 the Institute of Applied Research at Pforzheim University will especially focus on work step 4.1 (“Analysis of resource policy options in the field of instruments close to companies”). The starting point is – as for the whole project – the question about how to stimulate companies to act more resource-efficient. The analysis within work step 4.1 is not about the internal drivers, but deals with external conditions, meaning “stimulants” or incentives coming from the external sphere close to companies.
Against the background of ecological and societal complexity a company is regarded as a self-interested and autonomous operating player that is, at the same time, open to external influence, which is not the same as external determination. Hence, it is vital to make use of the self-interest of these self-steering systems and channel the behaviour through suitable incentive systems, called institutions. By doing so, it becomes feasible to trigger widespread resource-efficient practices as well as desired societal outcomes, provided that the implemented (formal or informal) institutions cover all relevant actors and do have (positive or negative) sanction mechanisms as a basis. What external sources seem to be most likely to stimulate a change in corporate ordering momenta (strategy, structure, culture) and actions (management, business and supporting processes) will be the subject of the analysis at the Institute of Applied Research.
REFFIM - Resource Efficiency Management for SME
until Summer 2010
Ministry of Environment Baden-Wuerttemberg
Resource efficiency resounded throughout the land – but despite high efficiency potential and associated cost savings it is no topic that runs by itself in German companies. REFFIM aims therefore for the component of public communication. The project investigates the orientation of measures to be realized by companies (in particular SMEs) and there by the relevant target groups (in particular executives). From this an efficiency marketing concept shall be developed, which picks up new approaches from so called business campaigning. Furthermore appropriate means and information offers will be developed and provided.
Technologies for Greenhouse Gas Reduction in Semiconductor and Solar Cell Production
01.08.2006 - 30.06.2009
Forschung für den Klimaschutz und Schutz vor Klimawirkungen
Following the Kyoto Protocol, the German government has committed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, N2O, H-FKW, FKW and SF6) by approximately 21% by 2012, as compared to 1990 levels.
The semiconductor industry is especially affected by these political guidelines as it releases large quantities of such gases (especially CO2, SF6, NF3 and halogenated fluorine hydrocarbons, or H-FKW). The emissions of the semiconductor industry of H-FKW, FKW, SF6 and NF3 amounted to 0.577 Mio t CO2-equivalents in 1997. Assuming the continuation of current practice, calculations show that by 2010 about 2.1 Mio t CO2-equivalents would be emitted.
This project, initialised by M + W Zander, aims to assess new technologies and concepts that further the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and mark energy efficient and effective solutions for the semiconductor and solar panel industries. The main objective is the evaluation of new exhaust gas treatment technologies in semiconductor and photovoltaic cell production (e.g., point-of-use abatements, electrically operated plasma burners in combination with catalysts) and the optimization of overall factory strategies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
The focal point for IAF is the evaluation of reduction potentials of greenhouse gases based on different scenarios for technical plant configuration and the assessment of typical potentials for CO2 reduction with different technical approaches. As a result, a tool for decision-making in the factory planning process of semiconductor and photovoltaic cells plants will be developed, which will meet the requirements of the industry for an effective and economical method.
M+W Zander FE GmbH, Stuttgart
Centrotherm Clean Solutions GmbH & Co. KG, Blaubeuren
- Schottler, M., Hottenroth, H., Schmidt, M. (2008): Reduction of Organic Solvents in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing by Oxidation - An Ecological Assessment. In: Reichl, H. et al. (Eds.): Electronics Goes Green 2008+. Proceedings. IRB Verlag. ISBN 381677668X. P. 959-960
Combination of Optimization Methods and Material Flow Analysis to Improve Operational Material Use
01.12.2006 - 31.03.2009
Innovationen als Schlüssel für Nachhaltigkeit in der Wirtschaft
The project serves the innovative connection of IT approaches for operational and interplant flow analysis with optimization methods from business administration and information management.
The goal is to increase productivity in production systems through the identification of inefficiencies in the use of raw materials and energy and by simultaneously presenting optimization strategies. To date, both approaches (material flow analysis and optimization) have been, at most, analyzed separately on an instrumental software level, which has led in particular to some utilization in small and medium enterprises. To increase the relevance of this “material flow-based optimal planning” for operational decision-making, it is necessary to look beyond the inefficiencies and determine how throughput parameters of production can be selected in order to achieve a local or global - economic or ecological – optimum.
Open research questions include: how can advanced algorithms of "global optimization" be linked with approaches of material flow modelling in such a way that they can be applied quasi universally to production systems? The methodical work of the project develops from concrete practical experience and flows into software solutions, which are tested in pilot projects in the chemical and metalworking industries and subsequently leads to their readiness for marketing. The relevance is very high for application in manufacturing - and throughout several industries. Current and reliable estimates assume a savings potential of material costs of 5 - 15 %, highlighting the important economic relevance of this project.
- Lambrecht, H. und M. Schmidt (2010): Material Flow Networks as a Means of Optimizing Production Systems. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 33 (4)
- Schmidt, M., Lambrecht, H., Möller, A. (Hrsg.): Stoffstrombasierte Optimierung. 2009. MV-Wissenschaft, Marburg
- Lambrecht, H., M. Schmidt und A. Möller (2009): Stoffstromnetze aus Sicht der Optimierungstheorie. In: F. Heyde, C. Tammer (Hrsg.): Methoden der Mehrkriteriellen Entscheidungstheorie. Tagungsband des Workshops der GOR-Arbeitsgruppen „Entscheidungstheorie und –praxis" und „OR im Umweltschutz", Lutherstadt Wittenberg 2008, SHAKER, Aachen.
- Lambrecht, H. und M. Zimmermann (2008): Combination of Optimization Methods and Material Flow Analysis for Improvement of Operational Material Use (KOMSA): Concept and its Implementation. In A. Möller et al. (Hrsg.): Environmental Informatics and Industrial Ecology, Shaker Verlag, Aachen.
- Schmidt, M., Lambrecht, H., Möller, A. (2007): Optimisation Approaches in Material Flow Models of Manufacturing Systems. In: Hryniewicz, O., Studzinski, J., Romaniuk, M. (Eds.): Environmental Informatics and System Research. Vol. 1. 21st. International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection Sept. 2007, Warsaw, Poland. S. 271-278
- Lambrecht, H., M. Schmidt, A. Möller (2007): Konzeptionelle Grundlagen zur Verbesserung von Produktionsprozessen durch Kopplung von Simulations- und Optimierungsverfahren. In: J. Wittmann, V. Wohlgemuth (Hrsg.): Simulation in Umwelt- und Geowissenschaften: Workshop Berlin 2007. S.37-47
Cumulative Emission Intensities to Assess Climate Protection Performance along Supply Chains
01.01.2007 - 31.01.2009
Forschung für den Klimaschutz und Schutz vor Klimawirkungen
Sustainability reports focusing on comprehensive corporate responsibility will become more important in the future. In particular, companies are paying more attention to the production conditions of their suppliers and waste contractors. Therefore, the entire supply chain is the focus of a company’s climate protection approach. The question is this: is it possible to evaluate the climate efficiency of companies in times of outsourcing and globalisation? For instance, companies can achieve an overall positive climate rating by outsourcing environmentally damaging processes to pollution havens, even if the overall climate rating of their products is negative.
Taking this into account, the task of the research project EINBLIK, which is supported by the BMBF, is to develop an indicator in order to sum up the climate intensities of all companies along a supply chain. This indicator does not only measure the climate impact of one product, but also takes into account the climate impact of a company’s different sites and the company as a whole. This distinguishes the method from the ordinary method of Life Cycle Assessment. Thus, one can say that the cumulated climate intensity of a company shows the climate protection performance of a company’s output because the indicators of its suppliers and waste contractors are incorporated into its own indicator. This indicator of cumulative climate intensities follows a different approach from other concepts that assess climate protection performance. The indicator for every company in the supply chain is calculated in the following way: the climate intensities of all suppliers and waste contractors of a company multiplied by their share of the company’s turnover and the direct emissions of a company are set in proportion to the company’s turnover to calculate the indicator. This results in a recursive indicator system in which each supplier and waste contractor merely passes its climate rating along the supply and disposal chain. Every company has to look back by only one supplier and waste contractor step. This yields another big advantage for the realisation of the method because the necessary data for the calculation of cumulative emission intensities is easily accessible to each company in the chain.
In the first step, the methodical framework will be determined. This includes the determination of accounting principles, the examination of the data demand, and the approach for international usage and boundary rules. The second step involves the implementation of the method as an operational decision support system. Analysis and extension of the decision models must precede integration of the method in the operational decision process. The last step is the application for the project partners’ businesses. For example, Volkswagen AG will compare the climate efficiency of different sites and factories by cumulative emission intensities, while Systain Consulting GmbH calculates cumulative emission intensities along an extensive supply chain.
The aim of the research project is to advance the cumulative emissions intensities method in order to apply this concept to all companies in globalised production systems. The application of the indicator system should be independent of the industry and the size of a company. Furthermore, the method should be transferable to pollutants other than CO2-equivalents, and it should also comprise reduction chains. As a result, companies will have an incentive to minimise the climate impact of their complete product range. Thus, the method is sufficient to support comprehensive corporate responsibility. Cumulative climate intensities offer the opportunity to assess supplier connections on climate relevant emission ratings. This will enable companies to establish integrated supply chain management on climate impacts leading to mitigation of CO2-emissions. Every company will strive to achieve a low indicator value and will pass on this tendency to its suppliers and waste contractors. Moreover, mitigation of CO2-emissions can be achieved by setting target values for the indicator or by installing a mandatory benchmarking system. Furthermore, the indicator provides a new decision criterion because it connects environmental measures with business data. Because the indicator is a concrete operational number and not simply a scientific measure unfamiliar to the typical businessperson, it can be easily understood and applied by the decision makers in companies.
Schmidt, Mario/Schwegler, Regina (2005): Wertschöpfungsbasierte Erfolgsmessung unternehmensbezogener Klimaschutzaktivitäten, hrsg. vom Institut für Angewandte Forschung der Hochschule Pforzheim (Pforzheimer Forschungsberichte: Nr. 4) (pdf-download)
Efficient Logistics and Recycling through Integrated Application of Smartlabels for Electronic Waste
01.10.2005 - 31.05.2008
17 23C 05
Since the adoption of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act - ElektroG (implementation of the European WEEE-directive), responsibility for the development of a collection system for old devices, the verification of given recycling ratios and the development of recyclable products are placed on the manufacturers of electrical and electronics devices. These duties require the development and/or improvement of systems for product labelling and monitoring since the specifications of the devices must be available at each step throughout their entire life cycle, from production through disposal or recycling. The project group, comprised from three Universities of Applied Sciences at Bingen, Darmstadt and Pforzheim, aims at analyzing the technical, economical and social implications of such labelling and monitoring systems and searches for suitable institutional frameworks from which the advantages of such solutions can most efficiently develop. The legal framework, possible technical standards and organisation forms are examined to determine how they contribute to a suitable incentive, which permits the lowest cost alternative to link the guidelines of the ElektroG with the individual incentives of the actors along the entire supply chain. Within this framework, the working group examines the objectives and implementation possibilities of closed loop supply chain management ("efficient Reverse Logistics") as well as the requirements of standardization and/or standardization of the information flows. Further, the resulting material flow can be mapped and illustrated in a model, which serves as a basis for consideration by all project partners.
Führ, Martin; Roller, Gerhard; Schmidt, Mario uva.: Individuelle Herstellerverantwortung durch Produktkennzeichnung bei Elektro- und Elektronikgeräten. Projektbericht. Sofia-Studien zur Institutionenanalyse Nr. 08-2, Darmstadt 2008 (ISBN 978-3-933795-88-5)
Download Projektbericht (1,4 MB pdf)
Führ, Martin; Roller, Gerhard; Schmidt, Mario uva.: Individuelle Herstellerverantwortung durch Produktkennzeichnung bei Elektro- und Elektronikgeräten. Anlagenband. Sofia-Studien zur Institutionenanalyse Nr. 08-3, Darmstadt 2008 (ISBN 978-3-933795-89-3)
Download Anlagenband (2,7 MB pdf)
Cichorowski, Georg: Technische Optionen für eine automatische Produktidentifikation im Bereich des Elektrogeräterecycling. Sofia-Studien zur Institutionenanalyse Nr. 08-1, Darmstadt 2008 (ISBN 978-3-933795-87-7)
Download Technische Optionen (0,5 MB pdf)
Barginda, Karsten: Akteurspezifische Anreizsituation durch WEEE und ElektroG. Teilprojektbericht. Sofia- Diskussionsbeiträge zur Institutionenanalyse Nr. 08-1, Darmstadt 2008 (ISBN 978-3-933795-90-7)
Download Anreizsituation (0,4 MB pdf)
Hottenroth, H.; Schräfer, W.; Schmidt, M.: Herstellerverantwortung beim Recycling von Elektro- und Elektronikaltgeräten, horizonte Ausgabe 32 (2008), S. 8-14
Führ, M.; Nuphaus, L.; Hottenroth, H.; Barginda, K.; Roller, G.; Cichorowski, G; Assmann, R.: Herstellerverantwortung nach WEEE-Richtlinie und Produktinnovationen – Status quo, Szenarien und Handlungsbedarf. In: MÜLL und ABFALL Nr. 1 vom 16.01.2008, S. 11-18
Hottenroth, H.; Keil, R.; Schmidt, M.; Borghetto, E.: Efficient Organization of Material and Information Flows Considering Interfaces in the Extended Supply Chain in the Electronic Industry
in: Hilty, L. M., Edelmann, X., Ruf, A. (eds.): R'07 World Congress - Recovery of Materials and Energy for Resource Efficiency, September 2007, Davos, Switzerland. Empa Materials Science and Technology, St.Gallen 2007
Keil, René (2006): Conceptual designing of alternative and individual WEEE collection systems for Hewlett-Packard. Master thesis, Hochschule Pforzheim (mit Sperrvermerk)
Kneller, Nadja (2006): Design of alternative WEEE collection systems for Hewlett-Packard. Diplomarbeit, Hochschule Pforzheim (mit Sperrvermerk)
01.01.2006 - 31.12.2007
Land Baden-Württemberg - Innovative Projekte
The modelling of a life cycle can be performed in two different ways. On the one hand, a life cycle can be modelled with a general model, which is the international norm in life cycle analysis (LCA). Present LCA is almost solely based on general models, e.g., the ecoinvent LCI Database with strong assumptions and simplifications. As this approach requires the collection of a huge amount of data, life cycle inventory data needs to be centralised and harmonised. On the other hand, partial models of industries can be used for LCA. As well-elaborated partial models with high-quality data related to different industries and sectors are available in Germany, it is vital to know whether LCAs based on such partial models are sufficiently reliable.
Within their industries, these partial models are superior to general models as they consider and differentiate aspects in the particular sector that cannot be represented by present general databases. Apparently, the established methodological approach to LCA is not optimal for the German situation. In general, the advantage of using partial models is the accuracy of the modelled processes. By applying different approximation procedures or other methods, such as the Neumann series expansion, it is possible to calculate the deviation that results between using a partial model approach and a general model approach.
Taking this into account, it no longer seems useful to adapt existing structures of data availability to the mainstream life cycle analysis practice; rather it is necessary to investigate how life cycle modelling can be advanced to handle these partial systems.
Schmidt, M., Ehrenberger, S. (2006): A Partial Model Approach for Life Cycle Inventory Analysis. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on EcoBalance - Designing our Future Society Using Systems Thinking, 14 - 16th Nov. 2006, Tsukuba, Japan
Success Factors for Operational Energy and Material Flow Management
01.01.2005 - 31.12.2006
Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg
Energy and material flow management can help companies discover considerable production cost savings, which may also lead to ecological savings of natural resources. Pilot projects have confirmed this, and analysis methods and instruments are available. Nevertheless, in practice - particularly in small and medium enterprises - appropriate projects are not carried through and/or fail because of various obstacles. Thus, a goal of EFAS was to identify the success factors (and/or obstacles) for energy and material flow management projects, to then categorize the enterprises and to develop specific guidelines for the use of a successful method and instrument.
01.01.2003 - 31.12.2004
Land Baden-Württemberg, (BWPLUS) Programm Lebensgrundlage, Umwelt und ihre Sicherung
Internal and external energy and material flow management aims to illustrate how the use of resources can be improved. The systematic structure of the model makes it possible to create transparency in the production process. Thus, various information levels can be linked to specific processes, and different evaluation perspectives and approaches are possible. So, an input-output analysis can occur for a general survey of the energy and material flows of a company. For the redesign and restructuring of processes and plants in the enterprise, modelling or simulation can be implemented (Meier et al., 2003, 74). An evaluation of the network can take place both up and down the material stream. Further, it is also possible to look at the associated costs, apart from the material flows. Material costs represent a large share of an enterprise’s expenses, so they require special attention. The research project was based on the initial thesis that conventional cost calculation instruments cannot satisfy certain information demands, but which can be uncovered through the use of energy and material flow management. Thus, a substantial contribution to in-plant transparency and to the improvement of decision-making can be achieved.
The instrumentation of energy and material flow management is far developed, but despite many good practical examples, it seems that the improvement of environmental performance runs altogether slowly and without uniformity, and it is frequently limited to the treatment of only the most obvious problems (Clausen et al., 2004, 419). So far, energy and material flow management was used only sporadically and, after the conclusion of pilot projects, it was usually not continuously carried through. Particularly in small and medium enterprises, the approach has not always met with broad approval, as these companies, in contrast to larger enterprises, are not equipped with the financial, personnel and technical resources needed for the improvement of their environmental performance. This explains why companies may not be persuaded by the potential cost savings despite numerous national initiatives and information supporting energy and material flow management (Clausen et al., 2004, 420).
This reluctance may be justified by, among other things, the fact that energy and material flow management necessitates a relatively high initial expenditure for the collection of the energy and material streams, whereby an unfavourable cost-benefit ratio results (Meier et al., 2003, 79). In order to understand the relationship between the potential of decreasing costs and the need for up-front expenditures, it is reasonable to look for a connection between the database of energy and material flow management and the existing information systems and controlling procedures. Thus, the objective of the project was to analyze the possible links of energy and material flow management in the enterprise to controlling procedures in particular. The project quickly clarified that, not only do theoretical integration potential and technical facility play a role (i.e., whether the concept of energy and material flow management is integrated into the procedures and actions of the enterprise), there are other factors of influence and obstacles that determine acceptance of the material flow approach in enterprises. The project aimed to examine the position and relevance of energy and material flow management in the enterprises through a comprehensive analysis approach in order to outline those issues and factors, which can form the basis for a broad view of the energy and material flow in enterprises.
- Schmidt, M./Hroch,N. (2005): "Stoffstrombezogene Leistungsverrechnung für ein nachhaltiges Unternehmenscontrolling", Hochschule Pforzheim (IAF) [Download]
- Schmidt, M.: "In Stoffströmen denken - Grundlage nachhaltigen Wirtschaftens". Vortrag beim NiK-Netzwerktreffen "Stoffstrommonitoring" des Fraunhofer-Instituts für Logistik und Materialfluss Dortmund am 24. Juni 2003 in Dortmund
- Schmidt, M.: "Material and Energy Flow Analysis Objectives, Methods, Instruments and Possible Applications." Einführungsvortrag beim Achema 2003-Kongress - Session "Material and Energy Flow Analysis" am 21.Mai 2003 in Frankfurt/M.
Assessment of Climate-Protecting Activities on the Basis of Added Value
01.01.2003 - 31.12.2004
Using greenhouse gas emissions as an example, a method was developed that permits the successful measurement of operational environmental protection activities and, concomitantly, a comparison beyond time periods, site locations or organisational limitations. In order to standardize the significant economic success factors, the operational added value was suggested as a reference parameter. Using this, together with non-financial factors from material input/output balances, key data can be generated in companies who have large product ranges, small vertical integration or strongly varying outputs. This serves not only for analysis, but also for the control and planning of operational environmental management. In the future, such systems will come to have more importance to political efforts to involve industrial enterprises into an emission trade for the purpose of climate protection (such as the Kyoto Protocol).
Integration of Ecology into Strategic Action and Concepts for Extended Controlling
01.11.2000 - 30.06.2002
The pre-phase for ISAC – Integration of Ecology into Strategic Action and Concepts for Extended Controlling – began running in January 2001. Under the centralized control of ifeu - Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg GmbH - many renowned partners from science and economics took part in this project, such as the following universities:
- Department of Applied and Socially-Oriented Computer Science, University of Hamburg
- Chair for Corporate Theory, Aachen University of Technology (RWTH Aachen)
- Institute for Applied Research (IAF), Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences
- Institute for Ergonomics and Technological Management (IAT), University of Stuttgart
and the following enterprises:
- ifu Institute for Environmental Computer Science Hamburg GmbH
- M+W Zander Facility Engineering
- Otto Versand GmbH & Co.
- Aventis Pharma Deutschland GmbH
- DaimlerChrysler AG
During the pre-phase, the demand for research in important areas of environmental management – strategically-oriented controlling and information supply – was identified, the concepts that were to be developed during the main phase were outlined, and the practical projects were planned. To this end, an interchange of ideas with the public was sought: during two public workshops, the main research ideas were presented and discussed with representatives from business and science.
The aim for the entire ISAC project was to strengthen environmental management by integrating ecology into strategic action. Effective and efficient pursuit of such ecological goals requires their integration into business strategy primarily because strategic decisions leave much more room for ecological action than operative decisions. Despite this fact, experts have discovered and criticized “strategic gaps” in the environmental management of companies.
The focus of ISAC was the theoretical examination of this phenomenon. From where does the strategic gap in environmental management originate? How are different priorities assigned to environmental protection in business plans? What is the company’s attitude toward ecological action? Based on the answers to these questions, opportunities were sought to optimally integrate ecological action. Last but not least, concepts and instruments were developed that support the integration of such ecological strategies into enterprises. Controlling that ensures the rationality of management decisions has been shown to play a key role during the integration process; therefore, the development of concepts for strategic (environmental) controlling was the focal point of the main phase of ISAC.
To do justice to these complex and interdisciplinary problems, the ISAC research group approached these topics from three different perspectives: strategic management, strategic controlling and information supply. These fields of theoretical research served as pillars, whereas practical projects with renowned companies such as DaimlerChrysler, Aventis, Otto Versand and M+W Zander served as links between these pillars. The practical projects were deliberately chosen to cover the different topics and entrepreneurial situations in an optimal way. Thus, from the beginning, the theoretical research was able to refer to practical examples, and the results (developed concepts, methods and instruments) could be directly tested in those companies. In return, the companies had the opportunity to take part in innovative research findings and were able to soundly solve their problems concerning the integration of sustainability into company strategy.
- Dyckhoff, H. / Ahn, H. / Schwegler, R. (2003): "Rollenkonflikte zwischen Umweltmanagern und Controllern: Fallbeispiele, Ursachenanalyse und Ansatzpunkte zur Konfliktauflösung", in: Schmidt, M.; Schwegler, R. (Hrsg.): Umweltschutz und strategisches Handeln: Ansätze zur Integration in das betriebliche Management, Wiesbaden, S. 253-267
- Schmidt, M. / Schwegler, R. (2003): "Einführung in das ISAC-Vorhaben" in: Schmidt, M.; Schwegler, R. (Hrsg.): Umweltschutz und strategisches Handeln: Ansätze zur Integration in das betriebliche Management, Wiesbaden, S. 1-21,
- Schwegler, R. (2003): "Lücken schließen im Umweltmanagement -Theoretischer Bezugsrahmen für ein rationales Management-Handeln auf Basis der St. Galler Management-Lehre" in: Institut für Angewandte Forschung der Hochschule Pforzheim (Hrsg.): Pforzheimer Forschungsberichte Nr. 1
- Schwegler, R. / Schmidt, M. (2003): "Rationales Umweltmanagement: Schließung der Lücken im Umweltmanagement - ein managementorientierter Bezugsrahmen", in: UmweltWirtschaftsForum, 11. Jahrgang, Heft 2, S. 4-11
- Schwegler, R. / Schmidt, M. (2003): "Lücken im Umweltmanagement: Forschungsansatz für ein rationales Umweltmanagement auf Basis der St. Galler Management-Lehre", in: Schmidt, M.; Schwegler, R. (Hrsg.): Umweltschutz und strategisches Handeln: Ansätze zur Integration in das betriebliche Management, Wiesbaden, S. 25-90
- Schwegler, R. / König, M. (2003): "Nachhaltige Unternehmensstrukturen am Beispiel Otto", in: Schmidt, M.; Schwegler, R. (Hrsg.): Umweltschutz und strategisches Handeln: Ansätze zur Integration in das betriebliche Management, Wiesbaden, S. 285-313
- Schwegler, R. (2003): "Lücken im Umweltmanagement: Theoretischer Bezugsrahmen für ein rationales Umweltmanagement auf Basis der St. Galler Management-Lehre", auf der Jahrestagung des DNWE (Deutsches Netzwerk Wirtschaftsethik) in Seeheim-Jugenheim, 5.4.2003
- Schwegler, R. (2003): "Kritik und Verbesserung der St. Galler Management-Modelle im Hinblick auf die Schließung von Lücken im Umweltmanagement (empirisch gestützt durch Fallstudien)", DNW-Doktoranden-Seminar des Doktoranden-Netzwerk nachhaltiges Wirtschaften e.V. (dnw) vom 26.-28.9.2003 in Berlin
01.05.2002 - 30.06.2003
At the DaimlerChrysler plant in Stuttgart, ecological material and energy flow analyses were carried out in order to identify the potential for economic and ecological savings and to develop suggestions for optimization. Thus, up-to-date methods of material flow analyses and IT instruments were used and further developed. Scientific questions centred on the proper use of the method of Petri-Net based material flow nets, modelling aspects of software-based presentation and the analysis of production processes, the development of generic data as well as the ecological assessment of material flows.
01.11.2000 - 30.06.2002
In this project, available scientific methods in the area of ecological material flow analysis were adapted in concrete cases in manufacturing enterprises. This was accomplished through the development of sample solutions, which are applicable to ever recurring problems in the enterprise. These could be, for example, questions regarding internal recycling, the allocation of environmental effects with combined products or the consideration of upstream process stages outside of the operating location. For this, a kind of "model construction box" was developed, which illustrates modular archetypal examples of material flow systems.
M. Schmidt (2000): "Betriebliche Umweltinformationssysteme" In: BMU/UBA (Hrsg.): Handbuch Umweltcontrolling. Vahlen München. 2. Aufl.
M. Schmidt (2000): "Computergestützte Stoffstromanalysen - hat das Unternehmen einen Nutzen davon?" In: L. M. Hilty et al. (Hrsg.): Strategische und betriebsübergreifende Anwendungen betrieblicher Umweltinformationssysteme. Marburg. S. 25-36.
M. Schmidt (2000): "Betriebliches Stoffstrommanagement" In: H. Dyckhoff: Umweltmanagement - Zehn Lektionen in umweltorientierter Unternehmensführung. Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg, S. 121-149
01.04.2002 - 31.07.2003
External Source/Project Partner
ifeu-Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung
The aim of the project for the global concern Deutsche Post World Net was to develop a concept for environmental reporting in a logistics company. The goal was to gather and allocate the environmental effects of logistics between the purchaser and the service provider in national financial statements and other means. Also addressed was the development of an approach for ecologically efficient environmental management in the transportation industry.